Semiconductor materials have an electronic gap. The atoms and conductors) are smaller than conductors large insulators. This allows electricity to flow under certain conditions. in the room. It's just an electron with enough energy to jump without temperature or bias. Weak semiconductors from several atomic ranges to the conductors. By applying insulators, more electrons can be promoted to conductors. An electrical bias that improves conductivity by reducing the band gap. Another way to stimulate electrons in the conduction zone is to use them. Electromagnetic waves, or semiconductors that involve light or heat, are basic. Solar photovoltaic generation and thermal solar energy conversion ep energy photon. More than band gap Eg is absorbed into the material. their energy Used to separate shared bonds to form electron-piercing (EH) pairs. Photon having enough free electronic energy energy to travel to the conduction zone. The excess energy of photons with a lower Eph than Eg is not absorbed. The band gap dissipates in the heat of the grid. If electrons were created in this process. It is not immediately extracted and recombines with the hole. then recombination of the energy conversion efficiency of semiconductors The process is caused by defects and impurities in the crystal grid - recombination center.